What is gas? Gas originates from Greek word and is translated as “chaos”. A Flemish chemist Jan Baptista Van Helmont used this word as a name of natural phenomenon in his scientific works.
However people knew about gas and its useful properties in the I century A.D. According to a legend Persian king ordered to build a palace kitchen in the place where gas exposed. Fire burned day and night in that kitchen, it allowed saving wood and coal. Then in III century Chinese people learned to produce natural gas by means of bunches of bamboo stalks with fixed at the end iron drill which bored the land surface. Then they using these bamboo stalks delivered gas to houses. Natural gas was widely used in the XIX century to lighten streets of European citizen via special gas pipeline systems.
Today we can see that gas pipelines with various diameters and length wrapped earth as a web. In comparison with the length of the Equator and general length of gas pipelines, we can state that the mileage of gas pipelines is 20 times longer than the periphery of Earth.
Gas transportation is a complex technological process. So, how is natural gas supplied to houses?
We will tell about and show you this process in the photo report called “Kazakhstani Gas – The Energy of Great Steppe”.
Before drilling geologists and scientists carry out seismic exploration. They study rocks, landscape and aerial photographic survey data. Only following complex scientific analyses geologists shall decide to drill a well. Heavy special equipment and drilling specialists are delivered to the expected area.
If they find gas, Gas Processing Plant (GPP) is built on this place which shall purify gas providing required standard.
The construction includes roads, place of residence for gasmen, power networks and other infrastructure facilities required for life. Thus, a shift camp is built in steppe and nearby villages revive.
Provided the profitability of the project along with GPP they start active construction of underground main pipelines (MP). It is a very important process which includes many other processes. One of them is the in-line inspection process (IIP).
IIP process is interesting. For example, you put a piston at the start of a gas-supply pipe in Kyzylorda Region and you can see it only after several thousand km in Aktobe Region. Within this time the piston purifies the pipe of waste and pushes it out. You never know what you can find in the gas pipeline…
After purification a pass sonde (“smart sonde”) scans thickness of the pipe, reveals specific areas, such as depreciation, deformation and metal corrosion.
After some test operations they supply high-pressure gas, i.e. marketable gas to the gas pipeline from GPP.
Dispatchers on expensive and modern equipment control pressure in the pipe and the operation of the whole system.
Thus gas is successfully transported to compressor stations (CS). There can be several stations along the main pipeline; usually they are built within 100-150 km from each other depending of the relief profile. At that time CSs are plants which purify, freeze and dry gas. Such stations have aviation turbines of Boeing planes – they provide high pressure and send gas in a pipeline.
Main pipelines allow gas overcoming many natural obstacles, such as rivers, lakes, deserts and mountains. Unfortunately, it is impossible to show it in photos. Pipelines are hidden underground.
Thus natural gas gets Automated Gas Distribution Stations (AGDS) specially built close to settlements.
Following compulsory examinations and diagnostic works gas from AGDS in lower-pressure pipes is transported to cities, district centers and villages.
Before natural gas is supplied to your house it flows to gas distribution points (GDP) and then is delivered to cabinet-type distribution points (CDP) at medium pressure.
Then gas is supplied to your house by municipal gas distribution networks – yellow pipes – and then you can cook your favorite food. But it is necessary to remember about safety measures.
A gas-supplied settlement shall be considered as an urban settlement. A house supplied with natural gas is always full of joy and fun. Warmth and comfort is always where gas is supplied. Here how “The Energy of Great Steppe” comes to houses of kazakhstanies.